From: Food Quality & Safety magazine, August/September 2014

Preventing Norovirus is in Hands of Food Workers

by Catherine Shaffer

A new report by the CDC on norovirus outbreaks in the food industry revealed that the virus is a more important cause of foodborne illness than previously thought and ill food workers are a significant cause of outbreaks. The report underscores the importance of hand hygiene and the challenges of increasing compliance in restaurant and other food service settings.

A surprising finding of the report has been that noroviruses, not bacteria like Salmonella, are the leading cause of foodborne illness. According to the CDC, about 20 million people are sickened by norovirus each year, through contact with infected people or by eating contaminated food. Most cases are not formally diagnosed by a physician, who may suspect norovirus, but gives a diagnosis of gastroenteritis or “stomach flu.” Thus, in spite of the widespread nature of the illness, there is not much awareness of it as a problem, especially in the food supply.

The CDC found that between 2001 and 2008, there were about 365 foodborne outbreaks of norovirus per year, resulting in 156 hospitalizations and one death, on average. Leafy vegetables were the most common food culprit in the outbreaks, followed by fruits and nuts, and mollusks. However, between 53 and 82 percent of outbreaks were attributable to infected food handlers.

The source of an outbreak can be very difficult to identify. Human noroviruses cannot be cultured in a cell line, so identification in foods is carried out by polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, analysis. That analysis confirms the presence of norovirus ribonucleic acid, but does not give information on the infectivity of the virus. A positive identification of norovirus in a food only proves that the food has been contaminated at some point, but not whether that food was actually the cause of an outbreak.

“Norovirus is just an extremely contagious virus,” says Aron Hall, an epidemiologist in the CDC division of viral diseases. Hall leads the norovirus epidemiology program at CDC. “It takes just a few viral particles to make someone sick. Somebody that’s infected is shedding billions of virus particles. Even with a little bit of hand hygiene or occasional lapse, there could still be enough virus on someone’s hands to spread the infection.”

Unlike many bacteria, human noroviruses are not transmitted through animals and manure. Contamination of food, therefore, is most likely to occur either before harvest through irrigation water contaminated with feces, or through handling by infected food workers. Once an outbreak has occurred, it can be nearly impossible to trace the source.

Features of norovirus that facilitate transfer include low infective dose, rapid onset of gastroenteritis symptoms, high load of virus particles in the feces and vomit, asymptomatic early disease, and long persistence outside the human host. Contaminated surfaces are a very efficient mode of transmission of the virus.

Contamination of foods and surfaces occurs through viruses on the hands or aerosolized vomit, and infection of susceptible individuals occurs through hand-to-mouth contact, so the role of hand hygiene in preventing outbreaks becomes crucial.

Some food workers mistakenly believe that a continuous cold chain of storage for foods will prevent transmission or destroy norovirus, as is effective with bacteria. According to University of Helsinki scientist Maria Ronnqvist, however, that is not true at all. “The fact that keeping a continuous cold chain for foods does not destroy viruses but rather preserves them has to be kept in mind in the food industry, for if the virus is transferred to the final, ready-to-eat [RTE] food product in the preparation phase, it could easily stay infective in the product until consumed,” she says.

Meticulous hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent norovirus contamination. Even gloves are not fully effective for preventing transmission, although they lower the amount of virus that can be transferred.

The CDC recommends washing hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds, particularly after using the restroom.
The CDC recommends washing hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds, particularly after using the restroom.



The FDA produces a document known as the Food Code that recommends best practices for safety in the food industry, including hand hygiene, according to Lee-Ann Jakus, a Food Science professor at North Carolina State University. “A huge issue in this country is compliance. You can tell people you should wash your hands this way for this amount of time, with soap and water, and you need to do it after you use the bathroom, but you have no way of ensuring people are actually doing that.”­

The CDC recommends washing hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds, particularly after using the restroom. Also, workers should use utensils and single-use disposable gloves to avoid touching RTE foods with their bare hands. Kitchen surfaces and objects should be sanitized with a product approved by the EPA for use against norovirus. Fruits and vegetables should be carefully washed and shellfish should be cooked to at least 140 degrees.

Hand hygiene in food service is well below 100 percent in observational studies, according to Hall. In one study, it was only performed in about 20 percent of cases. “Clearly there’s room to improve in hand hygiene compliance,” says Hall.

There are some measures known to improve compliance. Training and certification of kitchen managers in food safety can improve compliance and decrease incidence of norovirus outbreak, Hall says.

However, perfect hand hygiene is difficult in a fast-paced food service environment. “There are so many instances in the chain where you have to wash your hands in a busy food service establishment—it becomes overwhelming,” says Jaykus. “It adds a level of complexity. This particular workforce in many instances is not as highly skilled as other workforces.”

Sick Time

Another intervention possibly even more powerful than hand hygiene is sick time.

One of the other major findings of the CDC report was that people shed virus in their fecal material before they show symptoms, and for most of the time after they show symptoms. Although it’s difficult to identify workers who are shedding virus, but not yet sick, excluding workers who are ill is an obvious way to minimize norovirus outbreaks.

Food service workers often don’t have paid sick time, and so are reporting to work when actively sick and contagious. In addition to handwashing, the food industry can prevent outbreaks by encouraging workers to stay home when ill.

Although norovirus is a clear and persistent problem in the food industry, there are not many options for intervening and preventing outbreaks. The CDC findings that fresh produce, mollusks, and RTE foods are most likely to be contaminated, and that food handlers are a significant source of outbreaks offer guidance as to where to focus prevention efforts. The CDC also advocated development and validation of more advanced analytic methods, particularly those capable of correlating virus levels with infection risk. More study is also needed on the role of food handlers, particularly those that are asymptomatic.

The CDC also advocates for better surveillance by public health agencies and development of vaccines. In the meantime, hand hygiene is potentially the most powerful front-line tool for controlling norovirus outbreaks. Increasing hand hygiene awareness and compliance can stop outbreaks at the source, whether that source is the farm or the point of service, since all human norovirus requires a human vector, and it requires little investment beyond time spent on training and awareness.

Shaffer is a freelance writer based in Ann Arbor, Mich. Reach her at

How Committed Are Your Food Service Employees?

by Bill Sims Jr. 

The ideal food service culture should consist of employees moving beyond simple compliance of workplace rules to being truly committed to the jobs they perform.

One way to cultivate committed employees is to become a committed leader. For example, Steve Provost, the president of Maggiano’s Little Italy, which has more than 50 restaurants throughout 20 states, is very much a servant leader. When Provost visits his restaurants, the first thing he does is bus tables with the busboys, then wash dishes in the kitchen. This voluntary extra effort shows employees what commitment to the job looks like. When the leader of the company does something extra, what do you think the employees are going to do?

Another way to move people to commitment requires positive reinforcement in the leadership system. Employee engagement has been identified as a key driver of business profitability and human performance. Unfortunately, only 15 percent of employees say they are “actively engaged” at work.

When it comes to engagement, every organization has three kinds of workers:

Non-Compliant: “I will not follow your rules because I am convinced the only way to get high production is to take risks and shortcuts.”

Compliant: “I will follow your rules as long as someone (a manager, a supervisor, or a peer observer) is standing there watching me. But when that person leaves, I’ll take more risks and shortcuts.”

Committed: “I will follow the rules, when nobody is watching. This is who I am.”

How precisely do you shift your workplace culture from “I have to do it or I’ll be in trouble” to “I want to do it because I believe in it”? True positive reinforcement needs to be individualized and delivered immediately after an employee does something right. That way, the employee will be more likely to repeat those behaviors in the future. If food service workers go above and beyond their responsibilities, they should be recognized. Consider them your internal customers. Yes, they are doing their job and are paid to do it, but studies show a paycheck is not as big a motivator as feeling like you are making a difference at work.

Without positive reinforcement, your employees will be less committed. With less committed employees, you’re getting less performance from your team and your food service culture will suffer. However, using positive reinforcement to cultivate engaged workers will improve all aspects of their work.

Sims is president of The Bill Sims Company, Inc. Reach him at



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